Albeit the maple leaf is beautiful, the wilted leaves can be fatal to horses, ponies, donkeys, mules, and even zebras. I just read some info on Cornell University's site that indicates that sugar and silver maples may be equally toxic. It's no wonder New York and Vermont have both adopted it as their state trees and Canada has adorned its national flag with the Sugar Maple's … Red maple trees are commonly found in the northern and eastern parts of the United States. Ruminants are more sensitive because of the rapid break down and absorption of cyanide by the rumen. 34. Bedding should be purchased from a reputable dealer knowledgeable in horse husbandry. The toxin has also been isolated from seeds of the European sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus). The toxic dose is not yet well-defined, but ingestion of as few as 165 seeds could cause toxicosis.4 It is important to note that further investigation needs to be undertaken as the variation in the amount of toxin per seed, seed maturity and environmental conditions can dramatically affect the total amount of toxin ingested. Oak (Quercus species) Oak trees, well distributed throughout the eastern half of … Toxic plants of North America. Recently, horses have been observed suffering these symptoms after ingesting leaves from other trees, most notably the sugar maple. A husbandry issue: Black walnut tree shavings in bedding can cause early signs of laminitis. Dr. Kara , Veterinarian Category: Dog Veterinary Poisonings occur generally in late summer and fall, when leaves fall and drift onto pasture area. Lethality is based on amount of leaves consumed by the horse in a rapid amount of time. While red maple trees clearly cause problems for horses who eat their wilted or dried leaves, new studies show that silver and sugar maples also cause trouble. Sugar maples (Acer saccharum) are the pride of the East Coast, but grow throughout much of the United States. The affected RBC can rupture and become clogged in the kidney as a waste product. Box elder trees are widespread throughout North America and found in and surrounding many pastures. Chokecherry trees, along with other Prunus species (wild cherry, apricots, peaches and cherry laurel), are often found adjacent to pastures as windbreaks or ornamental trees or shrubs. Plant toxins damage the hemoglobin the horses's red blood cells, so the red blood cell (RBC) can no longer carry oxygen; thereby starving the body of oxygen. Avoid access to Maple Trees by your horses. More often, however, horses are not treated until after signs have developed. Ingestion of 1.5 lbs is toxic, ingestion of 3 lbs or more is fatal. Death is common in cases of red maple … Since the digestive tract in a horse differs from a cow/sheep/goat/deer, this theory may explain why Maple leaves are toxic to horses only. (Further reading on this subject may be found in Equus Magazine. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2011;27(2):447-458. It is vitally important that these horses not be stressed and that treatment is administered in a calm manner. If you see your horse eating wilted maple leaves, deny your horse access to the leaves by removing him from the source of the leaves. A Dutch study shows that not all species of maple tree are dangerous to horses, despite common assumptions. Boy is it a big … Identification of protoxins and a microbial basis for red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in equines. The bark and twigs of maple trees may also be toxic if consumed by horses. In the fall, fallen maple leaves are generally less palatable to horses, but they also pose a serious threat when they are consumed. Non-Toxic. But, you may want to check that there are no trees that are actually toxic to your horse. Sugar maple trees, like their cousins the red maple and silver maple, are poisonous to horses, but nontoxic to dogs, cats and humans. Dog poison No. Compounds extracted from red, sugar, silver and Norway maple leaves incubated with equine blood samples caused oxidation, hemolysis (the breakdown of red blood cells) or other types of damage to the cells. Pastures should be examined, especially after storms, and fallen limbs, branches and leaves should be removed. Furosemide may be helpful in horses with decreased urine output. Activated charcoal and mineral oil administered by nasogastric tube should be used for decontamination in an acute exposure. Red maple. The deep crimson leaves are beautiful, but toxic, particularly to horses. I know that Red Maple leaves are highly toxic to horses, didn't think that they were toxic to dogs. Many times, urine discoloration is the first symptom that the owner may notice. They are generally reversible if the horse is removed from the bedding at this point. They have leaves that drop in the fall and are lobed … Sweet Addition to Any Landscape Why Sugar Maple Trees? As the most cost-effective option for animal poison control care, Pet Poison Helpline's fee of $39 per incident includes follow-up consultation for the duration of the poison case. These molds can lead to-mild to-moderate depression, anorexia, fluid buildup in the legs, laminitis, increased heart and respiratory rate, increased body temperature, and mild colic … Goats have tannin-binding proteins in their saliva that allow them to tolerate higher amounts than cows and sheep. And there’s no need to worry about roaming pets when it comes to the Christmas Palm since it’s non-toxic for cats, dogs, and horses, making it one of the top pet friendly house plants. The liver and spleen will attempt to remove the trashed cells from the bloodstream faster than they can be replaced by the bone marrow. The Norway maple extracts are far less toxic and a horse could not consume enough to cause serious harm. The difference is its leaves contain a toxic latex that harms insects and pollinators. For example, all oaks have tannins, but some oak species are higher in tannins than other oak species. Pet Poison Helpline, an animal poison control center based out of Minneapolis, is available 24 hours, seven days a week for pet owners and veterinary professionals who require assistance treating a potentially poisoned pet. Most know the attractive leaves of Vermont’s state tree, the sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The toxicity of maple seeds has not been studied at length, but the leaves of red maples (Acer rubrum) are known to be toxic to dogs. If the PCV is low or falling rapidly, administer blood products before fluids. They fit nicely into a small garden. Death may occur within hours to days. As the horse's tissues become starved of oxygen and waste products begin to build in the kidneys, the horse will become lethargic. Seasonal pasture myopathy/atypical myopathy in North America associated with ingestion of hypoglycin A within seeds of the box elder tree. This tasty syrup comes from the sap of sugar, black or red maple trees, though more exotic syrups, like birch, are also now available. Tasty green buds in the spring and green or sprouted acorns in the fall are sources of the toxin; the tree's toxicity does not decrease with drying or freezing. The most common clinical sign is sudden death within minutes to a few hours after ingestion. The green leaves are less of a danger but still may contain some level of toxins. Discovered accidentally by Jim Kelmun in the mid-1970s, the Kelmun Protocol involves heating a mixture of aluminum-free baking soda and Grade B maple syrup. Twice-a-year danger: Green buds in the spring and green or sprouted acorns in the fall are the toxic culprits from the oak tree. Oak trees, well distributed throughout the eastern half of the United States, are poisonous to all large animal species. Drying or freezing does not decrease their poisonous potential. Southeastern plants toxic to ruminants. > Nicholson SS. 4. Scientific Name: Nerium oleander. The European Norway maple has a similar leaf shape and often gets mistaken for the sugar maple. If you fear your dog has ingested the leaves of a poisonous tree, contact your veterinarian immediately. Safe trees to plant near horse pastures include: Ash, Fir, Birch, Hickory, Hackberry and Magnolia, Trees to AVOID: Maple, Oak, boxelder, walnut and chinaberry. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Lynn Hovda.). Immediate treatment is your best course of action. One of them is dropping pods that look like little acorns. Dry or wilted leaves from these trees are poisonous for up to four weeks after falling from the tree. An oak leaf. Silver maple. In horses, the toxins primarily affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, causing anorexia, colic, bloody diarrhea and, less commonly, kidney damage. Careful attention must be paid to animals pastured close to these trees, and every effort must be made to prevent access. Eliminate access to contaminated hay by your horse. These provide important shade and shelter from the wind and are a nice addition to a natural setting. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 2001;8-10, 162-163, 726-727, 1043-1049. Maple trees are very common in the Northeastern United States. Equine Vet J 2013;45(4):419-426. Bedding contaminated with 20 percent or more of black walnut shavings has been shown to cause clinical signs. All rights reserved. Oak poisoning occurs most often in cows and calves and less so in sheep and horses. Therefore, the toxins are diluted out verses a dry and wilted leaf where the toxins are concentrated. © 2020 MJH Life Sciences™ and DVM 360. The toxins, cyanide glycosides, are found in the leaves and seeds of the plants but not in the fresh fruit. Green, fresh leaves are less toxic because the leaf is 80% water. If you are planting sugar maple trees, select a site in full sun for best results. The ingestion of wilted or dried maple tree leaves causes destruction to the red blood cells, which limits their oxygen carrying … Horses should receive GI protectants and intravenous fluids as needed. © 2020 MJH Life Sciences and DVM 360. Renal indices (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations) and liver enzyme activities are elevated, and PCV may be decreased or increased depending on hydration status. Black walnut trees are commonly found in the eastern half of the United States, and the wood can be prized for woodworking potential. The decrease in the number (acute hemolytic anemia) and oxygen-carrying capacity (methemoglobinemia) of circulating RBCs causes a severe lack of oxygen delivery and poor perfusion. Consequently, the horse will become Anemic. There is no treatment; horses should not be grazed on pastures with box elder trees. Since toxic reactions are often linked to quantity—“the dose makes the poison”—these … Those horses not as severely affected show signs of stiffness, lethargy, ataxia and muscle weakness within three days of ingestion. Stocking up and early signs of laminitis (shifting legs, warm hoof walls, digital pulses) appear within 24 hours of exposure to bedding. Beauty, charm and strength - the Sugar Maple is a hardwood that embodies it all. Pet Poison Helpline is available in North America by calling 800-213-6680. Red maple leaves are HIGHLY TOXIC to horses. Maple syrup. If your dog is a constant nibbler, then you should avoid planting trees poisonous to dogs or plan on keeping your dog away from these trees. All rights reserved. Included in the list of toxic maples are the Sugar and silver maples and their hybrids. Recumbent horses may not be able to stand without assistance. Toxic and Non-Toxic Plant List - Dogs Plants Toxic to Dogs Adam-and-Eve (Arum, Lord-and-Ladies, Wake Robin, Starch Root, Bobbins, Cuckoo Plant) | Scientific Names: Arum maculatum | Family: Araceae The soil should be acidic to slightly alkaline. Early and aggressive treatment in ruminants is imperative and may include a rumenotomy to remove mass amounts of acorns, supportive care, GI protectants, and intravenous fluids to treat dehydration and increase urine output and perfusion. Activated charcoal and mineral oil may be useful in an acute ingestion. The Non-Toxic and Toxic wood list is thanks to Mario D. Vaden: M. D. Vaden – Trees & Landcapes. The red maple tolerates wet soils better than the sugar maple, but is … The extracts derived from the silver and sugar maples do less damage to the equine red cells than do the red maple extracts but nonetheless, the changes are significant enough to be potentially harmful to a horse. The staff provides treatment advice for poisoning cases of all species, including dogs, cats, birds, small mammals, large animals and exotic species. If you have nearby maple trees, immediately rake and remove storm damaged leaves and branches from the pasture before they become dried and wilted. Experimental attempts to recreate the effects through topical or oral ingestion of juglone have been unsuccessful. 3. Of the three I would pick a maple tree as although the sap may be mildly irritating that rarely is a problem, and maple trees are not big sap producers. Treatment includes removing the horses from the contaminated bedding and providing supportive care including pain management and farrier intervention if needed. Toxic for horses and dogs, yet non-toxic for cats, the danger of this tree presents in the mold that grows on the nuts from the tree. (Getty Images/MAJOROSL). Yews have some pretty severe toxins. *. The black walnut tree itself is not toxic, but shavings made from it are and should not be used as horse bedding. Japanese maple trees are charming small maples with decorative leaves and astonishing and dramatic fall color. Common Fall toxins to pets. Melissa Franssen is a 2016 DVM candidate at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. Ingesting the leaves can cause tremors, respiratory … Alward A, Corriher CA, Barton MH, et al. Once signs of maple toxicity appear, a horse's odds of survival drop significantly, even with hospitalization. The top five trees poisonous to large animals are the red maple, oak, box elder, chokecherry and black walnut. Thanks to its diminutive size, it’s the top palm for container growing, so you can bring it inside or leave it on the porch to frame your entryways. Growing Conditions for Sugar Maples. It contains a substance called cardiac glycosides which can cause heart irregularities, muscle tremors, vomiting, and diarrhea. The links in the following list will take you to descriptions of the trees for easy identification. Valberg SJ, Sponseller BT, Hegeman AD, et al. In ruminants, early signs include anorexia, dullness, rumen atony and constipation. Members of this group pose a deadly hazard to all ruminants, horses and swine. The ingestion of dried or wilted maple leaves can cause a toxic poisoning in horses. Lynn R. Hovda, RPH, DVM, MS, DACVIM, is the Director of Veterinary Services at Pet Poison Helpline, Bloomington, Minnesota. Maples reproduce by seed and vegetatively by stump sprouts. 4. Dog poison No. Death may occur three to seven days after ingestion. A sugar maple tree growing in deep, well-drained soil is happiest. This tree is found in northern European pastures where horses have died of atypical myopathy, a syndrome similar to seasonal pasture myopathy. Ingestion of box elder seeds, which contain the toxin hypoglycin A, has been associated with the onset of seasonal pasture myopathy, a syndrome affecting horses in the fall. Title: Horse-killing toxins identified in maple leaves Issue: For centuries, horses have been known to suffer from hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia and death after eating red maple leaves. Do not wait for symptoms to occur because the damage caused to your horse by the maple leaves may be irreversible by the time the symptoms appear. An efficient killer: Sudden death is often the first sign of chokecherry exposure in ruminants, horses and swine. Red, Sugar and Silver Maple Browse We always have to keep in mind that chemical constituents vary across species in any given genus. > Burrows GE, Tyrl RJ. Pacific Yew. 1. Or maybe dogs just don't make a habit of eating leaves, I guess. Included in the list of toxic maples are the Sugar and silver maples … Horses may eat an occasional maple leaf without any symptoms of toxicity. ... WE have two trees -- a maple and a pine -- over our back deck. Most cases of Maple Leaf Toxicity is reported from June through October in the eastern USA. J Vet Diag Invest 2012:25(1):112-119. Many pastures included forested areas. Because the body is now starved of oxygen, tissues and organs will begin to shut-down and fail. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Lynn Hovda.). are maple tree pods/seeds toxic to dogs? Ultimately, the urine will become dark red to black colored. The toxin within the black walnut shavings is unknown but was originally thought to be juglone. You can also call the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center at 888-426-4435. An adult horse would have to consume 1-2 lbs of dried or wilted maple leaves to be affected by the toxin. Heh - no leaves anyway of course! The Red Maple (Acer rubrum; also called the Swamp Maple) is known to be toxic to horses, it has been suggested by researchers that other maple trees can be just as poisonous. It’s popular in the south and is considered one of the most toxic plants to dogs and children. Red maple trees are some of the most spectacular trees to behold in the fall. Clinical Signs: Destruction of red blood cells (anemia), weakness, dark urine, difficulty breathing, abortion, death. Aged or old wood shavings are both toxic, but shavings exposed to air for more than a month are less harmful. Do you know the clinical signs of these tree-related toxicoses and how to help affected patients? I am aware of red maple leaves and their potential toxic effect upon horses if they ingest a certain amount. Wilted leaves are most toxic. Poisoning is associated with the ingestion of large amounts of buds or young leaves and acorns over a two- to three-day period. Three species of maple trees may have toxic leaves, according to studies conducted by Cornell University’s Department of Animal Science. If you suspect your pet may have ingested a potentially toxic substance, call the APCC at (888) 426-4435 or contact your local veterinarian as soon as possible. The gums will become pale yellow and progress to dark and muddy color. There is not a specific test for the toxin itself, but renal and liver enzyme activities are often elevated, and Heinz body formation is present on a blood smear. Some of the more toxic plants to dogs include: Azaleas and rhododendrons. The four common maples native to the United States include: Sugar maple. The judicious use of intravenous fluids will promote excretion of toxins and help decrease the onset of kidney damage. * A consultation fee may apply. Your horse may require a blood transfusion and may receive large doses of Vitamin C (antioxidant). Boxelder. The tree will also grow in partial sun, with at least four hours of direct, unfiltered sun every day. Trees provide shelter, shade and wind breaks for large animals but may also be a contributing cause of illness. Ponies can consume as little as a half-of-a-pound of wilted leaves and succumb to the toxicity. Before installing them in any cage, scrub all branches with a non-toxic disinfectant, then rinse and dry well (preferably in the … Despite their fiery leaves in autumn, no part of the tree is toxic to humans or domestic animals -- … Which poisonous plants are … In affected horses, significant necrosis of the respiratory and postural muscles occurs. The diagnosis is based on history of exposure and ingestion, clinical signs and laboratory analysis. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Lynn Hovda.). They may be pretty, but plants aren’t necessarily pet friendly. Horses can die from the secondary effects of poor perfusion as well as acute renal failure. The following trees are highly toxic to horses: Red Maple (Acer rubrum) ©Wiki Commons. Neck and shoulder sweating, colic, fever and painful laminitis (egg shell stance, hot feet, pounding digital pulses, reluctance to move, recumbency) occur after continued exposure. Horses are weak and reluctant to move and may exhibit fine muscle tremors. Diagnosis is based on a combination of ingestion history, clinical signs and laboratory analysis. Fall season is full of mushrooms, mothballs, antifreeze, rodenticides, compost bins and red maple leaves are all toxic to pets. They are native, hardy, and have attractive seasonal foliage. These trees should not be planted in or near pastures, and any existing trees or shrubs should be removed. Common Name: Oleander Species Most Often Affected: horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, humans, goats Poisonous Parts: all, leaves, stems Primary Poisons: nerioside, oleandroside, saponins, cardiac glycosides Questions possibly pertaining to Nerium oleander: . Trimmings should not be fed or disposed of in a pasture where animals have access to them. 9: Plants. 17, 2012, 09:18 PM. Maple trees-toxicity-sugar vs. red Apr. Often laminitis (founder) may occur. The seeds pose a serious and often fatal threat to horses. Several chemicals were identified as toxic to the equine red blood cells, most notably gallic acid. Gallic Acid is present in some level in silver maple, sugar maple and Norway maple leaves. The toxin in red maples is unknown but is suspected to be a gallotannin present within the wilted and dried leaves that is metabolized to pyrogallol by intestinal bacteria.3 This toxin, once  absorbed,  causes reactive oxidation of red blood cells (RBCs), RBC lysis, methemoglobinemia and the formation of Heinz bodies. Inspect hay that may have been contaminated with maple tree leaves. “This highly alkaline protocol (cancer cells thrive on acidity) has been shown to shrink tumors by luring sugar-loving cancer cells towards the maple syrup, only to send in the sodium bicarbonate ‘Trojan Horse’ to destroy them,” writes author, film produc… Feces are often hard and covered with mucus but may be black and fluid-filled if hemorrhagic enteritis has developed. Hemolytic anemia is evident, with a decrease in packed cell volume (PCV) in the face of a normal total plasma protein concentration. Maple syrup contains fewer calories than honey and an even higher concentration of … Common risk factors for poisoning not only include the presence of box elder trees within or near pastures, but also overgrazed and sparse pastures, little supplemental feeding of hay or grain and prolonged turnout time.
2020 are sugar maple trees toxic to dogs